Urinary levels of triclosan and triclocarban in several Asian countries, Greece and the USA: Association with oxidative stress
Triclosan (TCS) and Triclocarban (TCC) are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products (PCPs). Because of their potential for endocrine disrupting effects, human exposure to these chemicals is a concern. Biomonitoring studies of human exposure to TCS and TCC have shown widespread exposure of populations in western European countries and the USA. However, exposure to TCC and TCS by populations in Asian countries is less well known. In this study, concentrations of TCS and TCC were determined in human urine collected from seven Asian countries (China, India, Korea, Kuwait, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Vietnam), and Greece and the USA. A total of 430 urine samples were analyzed for TCS and TCC, of which 355 (83%) and 82 (19%), respectively, contained measurable levels of these chemicals. The overall geometric mean [GM] concentrations of TCS and TCC, were 1.36 and 0.03 ng/mL, respectively. The highest mean concentration of TCS was found in urine from China (100 ng/mL) and the lowest concentration was found in urine from Vietnam (2.34 ng/mL). We also analyzed urinary 8-OHdG, a marker of oxidative stress, to elucidate the association with TCS and TCC levels for samples from Saudi Arabia (n=130) and a positive correlation between Ln-transformed TCC levels and 8-OHdG was found, although this was not statistically significant. This is the first study to report urinary levels of TCS and TCC in several Asian countries, especially for Vietnam, Kuwait, and Japan.