Physicochemical stability and aerosolization performance of dry powder inhalation system containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride
Antibiotic delivery in form of dry powder inhalation has been studied for possible clinical treatment of respiratory tract infection in the recent years. Dry powder inhalation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) assures local antibacterial activity and comfort of easy application. The aim of this work was to test the stability of co-spray-dried CIP in carrier free system. Since the microparticles in the dry powder system are amorphous and do not contain any stabilizer, the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the physicochemical properties and aerosolization behavior are very important. Therefore investigation of the role of excipients (such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), l-leucine (LEU) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD)) on physicochemical stability and aerosolization performance is essential element prior designing the final dosage form. Stability tests (stress and accelerated) were performed at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% RH during 6 months. Particle characterization and size measurement – as the most important parameters in aerodynamic behavior – were done by the laser diffraction method, the surface morphology of microparticles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physiochemical properties of microparticles were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The resulting aerodynamic behavior of microparticles was studied by Andersen cascade impactor. The overall stability results (against RH and temperature) showed that microparticles containing CIP and LEU alone and in combination with the other excipients were more stable than those containing PVA or CD alone. In relation to fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter (determining the aerosolization parameters), it was found that the particle size and particle shape did not show significant changes after the storage.
Among the excipients LEU was found to have many advantages, including relatively simple formulation, enhanced aerosolization behaviour, convenient portability and inherently improved stability. Such a composition may serve as an innovative drug delivery system for the local treatment of respiratory tract infection and cystic fibrosis.