Early Rebleeding after Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Rupture, Clinical Impact and Predictive Factors: A Monocentric Retrospective Cohort Study

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Background: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are a leading cause of intracranial hemorrhage in young adults. This study aimed to identify individual predictive factors of early rebleeding after BAVM rupture and determine its impact on prognosis. Methods: Early rebleeding was defined as a spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage within 30 days of BAVM rupture in patients with nonobliterated BAVMs. One hundred fifty one patients with 158 BAVM hemorrhagic events admitted to a tertiary care center during 14 years were included. Univariate followed by multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of early rebleeding on in-hospital mortality and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score beyond 3 months and to identify independent predictors of early rebleeding. Results: Eight early rebleeding events were observed, 6 of which occurred during the first 7 days. Early rebleeding was independently and significantly associated with poor outcome (mRS ≥3 beyond 3 months, p = 0.004) but not with in-hospital mortality (p = 0.9). Distal flow-related aneurysms (p = 0.009) and altered consciousness with a Glasgow coma scale score of 3 (p = 0.01) were independently associated with early rebleeding. Conclusions: Early rebleeding is a severe complication that can occur after BAVM-related hemorrhage. Distal flow-related aneurysms and initial altered consciousness are associated with early rebleeding.

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