Incongruence in Perceptions: Identifying Barriers to Patient Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit

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Abstract

Background:

Patient satisfaction is at the forefront of quality care and patient outcomes. The literature identifies the discrepancy between nurse and patient perceptions in a variety of care settings; few studies have investigated the perceptions of care in a critical care unit. Understanding the perceptions in a critical care unit is necessary to optimize organizational performance related to quality, safety, patient-centered care, and efficiency.

Objective:

The purpose of the study was to determine whether a discrepancy exists between what patients and families perceive as satisfaction with their care as compared with the nurses’ perception of what constitutes positive patient satisfaction in a medical critical care unit.

Methods:

A cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted to assess patient-perceived satisfaction with nursing care versus nursing perceptions in the medical intensive care unit. A convenience sample of patients and/or family members and the nurses providing their care was conducted. The validated Patient Satisfaction with Nursing Care Quality Questionnaire and Nurse’s Assessment of the Patient’s Expectations Questionnaire were used to assess perceptions. Patients and/or their family members and nurses’ responses were evaluated as matched pairs. The data were analyzed using Spearman correlation.

Results:

Forty-eight matched pairs of questionnaires were completed. There was not a correlation (r = 0.135; 95% confidence interval, −0.16 to 0.41; P = .363) between the overall patient and nurse averages for common questions. The analysis of the individual patient and nurse items revealed statistically significant correlations between only 2 of the 19 items, information given (P = .027) and recognition of opinions (P = .043).

Results:

Correlations within patient questionnaires were noted in some areas such as patients’ perception of quality of care and expectations, overall quality of nursing care, and patient expectations and patients’ likelihood to recommend the hospital to family and friends. Patient satisfaction was influenced by a number of factors, most notably patient expectations.

Implications for Practice:

Nurses’ perceptions of positive patient satisfaction in critical care are incongruent with patients’ perceptions. Improving nurses’ awareness of the patient experience could improve patient satisfaction. Further studies examining patient expectations could be beneficial in improving patient satisfaction in the critical care setting.

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