Microwave imaging (MI) technology has come a long way to introduce a noninvasive, inexpensive, fast, convenient, and safe screening tool for clinical breast monitoring. However, there is a niche between the existing understanding of MI by engineers versus clinicians. Our manuscript targets that niche and highlights the state of the art in MI technology compared to the existing breast cancer detection modalities (mammography, ultrasound, molecular imaging, and magnetic resonance). The significance of our review article is in consolidation of up-to-date breast clinician views with the practical needs and engineering challenges of a novel breast screening modality. We summarize breast tissue abnormalities and highlight the benefits as well as potential drawbacks of the MI as a cancer detection methodology. Our goal is to present an article that MI researchers as well as practitioners in the field can use to assess the viability of the MI technology as a competing or complementary modality to the existing means of breast cancer screening.