Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibition With Saxagliptin Ameliorates Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Diastolic Dysfunction in Male Mice
Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is common in hypertension and obesity and contributes to cardiac diastolic dysfunction, a condition for which no treatment currently exists. In light of recent reports that antihyperglycemia incretin enhancing dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors exert cardioprotective effects, we examined the hypothesis that DPP-4 inhibition with saxagliptin (Saxa) attenuates angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac diastolic dysfunction. Male C57BL/6J mice were infused with either Ang II (500 ng/kg/min) or vehicle for 3 weeks receiving either Saxa (10 mg/kg/d) or placebo during the final 2 weeks. Echocardiography revealed Ang II-induced diastolic dysfunction, evidenced by impaired septal wall motion and prolonged isovolumic relaxation, coincident with aortic stiffening. Ang II induced cardiac hypertrophy, coronary periarterial fibrosis, TRAF3-interacting protein 2 (TRAF3IP2)-dependent proinflammatory signaling [p-p65, p-c-Jun, interleukin (IL)-17, IL-18] associated with increased cardiac macrophage, but not T cell, gene expression. Flow cytometry revealed Ang II-induced increases of cardiac CD45+F4/80+CD11b+ and CD45+F4/80+CD11c+ macrophages and CD45+CD4+ lymphocytes. Treatment with Saxa reduced plasma DPP-4 activity and abrogated Ang II-induced cardiac diastolic dysfunction independent of aortic stiffening or blood pressure. Furthermore, Saxa attenuated Ang II-induced periarterial fibrosis and cardiac inflammation, but not hypertrophy or cardiac macrophage infiltration. Analysis of Saxa-induced changes in cardiac leukocytes revealed Saxa-dependent reduction of the Ang II-mediated increase of cardiac CD11c messenger RNA and increased cardiac CD8 gene expression and memory CD45+CD8+CD44+ lymphocytes. In summary, these results demonstrate that DPP-4 inhibition with Saxa prevents Ang II-induced cardiac diastolic dysfunction, fibrosis, and inflammation associated with unique shifts in CD11c-expressing leukocytes and CD8+ lymphocytes.