Macular capillary plexuses after macular hole surgery: an optical coherence tomography angiography study

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To investigate the structural changes of the superficial capillary plexuses (SCP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) in patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH) after surgery, determine the factors related to changes of macular capillary plexuses and evaluate its association with postoperative visual outcomes.


Thirty-three patients with unilateral MH who were followed for ≥6 months after surgery were included. Ophthalmologic evaluations included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain OCT before surgery and 6 months postsurgery. En face OCTA images were obtained for both eyes at 6 months postsurgery, and the postoperative foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area and parafoveal vascular density were identified.


Compared with fellow eyes, eyes after MH surgery had a smaller FAZ area in both SCP and DCP (p<0.05 for all). The FAZ area was positively correlated with postoperative foveal thickness of the whole, inner and outer layers (p<0.05 for all). In the parafoveal region, eyes after MH surgery had a tendency to have lower parafoveal vascular density, particularly in DCP (p=0.019). The parafoveal vascular density in DCP was positively correlated with retinal thickness of the whole, inner and outer layers (p<0.05 for all). Correlations between BCVA and FAZ area in both SCP and DCP were significant 6 months after MH surgery (p<0.05 for all).


Assessment of macular capillary plexuses using OCTA may be useful for monitoring retinal structural and functional changes in MH.

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