The use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is increasing worldwide. These patients often require noncardiac surgery. In the perioperative period, preoperative assessment, patient transport, choice of anesthetic type, drug dosing, patient monitoring, and intraoperative and postoperative management of common patient problems will be impacted. Furthermore, common monitoring techniques will have unique limitations. Importantly, patients on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remain subject to hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and acidemia in the perioperative setting despite extracorporeal support. Treatments of these conditions often require both manipulation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation settings and physiologic interventions. Perioperative management of anticoagulation, as well as thresholds to transfuse blood products, remain highly controversial and must take into account the specific procedure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit function, and patient comorbidities. We will review the physiologic management of the patient requiring surgery while on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.