The uncoupling protein (UCP) belongs to a family of energy-dissipating proteins in mitochondria. Increasing evidences have indicated that UCPs have immense impact on glucose homeostasis and are key proteins in metabolic syndrome. For applying the findings to clinical practice, we designed a study to explore the association between serum UCPs 1–3 and insulin resistance. This investigation prospectively recorded demographical parameter and collected blood samples of 1071 participants from 4 districts in Northeastern Taiwan during the period from August 2013 to July 2014. Propensity score matching by age and sex in patients with top and bottom third homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels was performed, and 326 subjects were enrolled for further studies. The mean age of the patients was 59.4 years and the majority of them (65.5%) were females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 35.5%. Our results demonstrated that serum UCPs 1–3 were significantly associated with differences in HOMA-IR levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that low UCP 1 and features of metabolic syndrome, namely hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and high-density lipoprotein, were independent determinants for high HOMA-IR levels. We thus determined that low serum UCP 1 is a predictor for high resistance to insulin.