Odontogenic myxoma: A 63‐year retrospective multicenter study of 85 cases in a Brazil population and a review of 999 cases from literature

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Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is an uncommon neoplasm of the jaws defined as a benign odontogenic tumor (OT) that consists of rounded and angular cells in an abundant mucoid stroma.1 The histogenesis of this lesion is believed to be related to the mesenchyme of a developing tooth or to originate from the periodontal ligament.4
It is estimated that the incidence of OM ranges from 0.5% to 17.7% of all OTs, occurring more commonly in young adults with a slight female predilection.4 The lesion usually presents as an expansible painless multilocular radiolucent lesion. Displacement of teeth is a relatively common occurrence, and root resorption is rarely seen. There is no consensus about the surgical treatment of OM. Small lesions are usually treated by curettage; however, larger lesions require complete excision with free margin, once that can infiltrate the adjacent bones.9 Rates of recurrences have an average of approximately 25%10 and may be explained mainly by its gelatinous aspect and the fact it does not have a capsule.5 The overall prognosis is good, and metastasis does not occur.11
Epidemiological studies with substantial numbers of cases of OM are published in the English‐language literature.3 However, large series of OM on the South American continent are uncommon. Considering the importance of defining the relative incidence and demographic profile of these lesions in South America, the aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and imagiological features of 85 cases of OM diagnosed in representative Brazilian centers of oral diagnostics and to compare them with data from a literature review.

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