Bone grafting in oblique versus prepared rectangular uncontained glenoid defects in reversed shoulder arthroplasty. A biomechanical comparison
How the shape of the glenoid defect being reconstructed influences stability in reversed shoulder arthroplasty has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the reconstruction of two different shaped defects in reversed shoulder arthroplasty.Methods:
Two groups (ten Sawbone scapulae each) of oblique- and rectangular-shaped glenoid defects were tested biomechanically. On the anterior half of the glenoid, bony defects (rectangular and oblique shaped) were prepared and reconstructed subsequently with a graft and reversed shoulder arthroplasty. As a control group, Sawbones without glenoid deficiency were used. In addition, these tests were reproduced in cadavers.Findings:
In Sawbones, no significant difference in initial stability was found between the two groups (p > 0.05). Additionally, in the cadaver tests no significant difference was found between the groups with different defects (p > 0.05). During the preparation, macroscopic loosening of the oblique bone grafts was found in three cases after the performance of the reversed shoulder arthroplasty due to the lack of medial support. The localization of the highest micromotion were measured primarily between the scapula bone and the graft compared to the measured micromotions between glenoid implant and the graft.Interpretation:
If the oblique-shaped bone graft was secured under the baseplate, the rectangular defect preparation did not show a significantly higher primary stability. However, the advantage of medial support in rectangular defects leads to more stability while placing the bone graft and baseplate during the surgical technique and should therefore be considered a preferable option.