Frequency dependent hub role of the dorsal and ventral right anterior insula
The right anterior insula (rAI) plays a crucial role in generating adaptive behavior by orchestrating multiple brain networks. Based on functional separation findings of the insula and spectral fingerprints theory of cognitive functions, we hypothesize that the hub role of the rAI is region and frequency dependent. Using the Human Connectome Project dataset and backtracking approach, we segregate the rAI into dorsal and ventral parts at frequency bands from slow 6 to slow 3, indicating the frequency dependent functional separation of the rAI. Functional connectivity analysis shows that, within lower than 0.198 Hz frequency range, the dorsal and ventral parts of rAI form a complementary system to synchronize with externally and internally-oriented networks. Moreover, the relationship between the dorsal and ventral rAIs predicts the relationship between anti-correlated networks associated with the dorsal rAI at slow 6 and slow 5, suggesting a frequency dependent regulation of the rAI to brain networks. These findings could improve our understanding of the rAI by supporting the region and frequency dependent function of rAI and its essential role in coordinating brain systems relevant to internal and external environments.