Baseline prevalence and longitudinal evolution of non-motor symptoms in early Parkinson’s disease: the PPMI cohort
To examine the baseline prevalence and longitudinal evolution in non-motor symptoms (NMS) in a prospective cohort of, at baseline, patients with de novo Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared with healthy controls (HC).Methods
Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) is a longitudinal, ongoing, controlled study of de novo PD participants and HC. NMS were rated using the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part I score and other validated NMS scales at baseline and after 2 years. Biological variables included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers and dopamine transporter imaging.Results
423 PD subjects and 196 HC were enrolled and followed for 2 years. MDS-UPDRS Part I total mean (SD) scores increased from baseline 5.6 (4.1) to 7.7 (5.0) at year 2 in PD subjects (p<0.001) versus from 2.9 (3.0) to 3.2 (3.0) in HC (p=0.38), with a significant difference between the groups (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, higher baseline NMS score was associated with female sex (p=0.008), higher baseline MDS-UPDRS Part II scores (p<0.001) and more severe motor phenotype (p=0.007). Longitudinal increase in NMS severity was associated with the older age (0.008) and lower CSF Aβ1–42 (0.005) at baseline. There was no association with the dose or class of dopaminergic therapy.Conclusions
This study of NMS in early PD identified clinical and biological variables associated with both baseline burden and predictors of progression. The association of a greater longitudinal increase in NMS with lower baseline Aβ1–42 level is an important finding that will have to be replicated in other cohorts.Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01141023.