In situ hydrogels enhancing postoperative functional recovery by reducing iron overload after intracerebral haemorrhage
The role of surgery for most patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) remains controversial due to the continuous occurrence of postoperative iron overload induced by low clot clearance rate. In this study, human hair keratose hydrogel (KG) loading with minocycline hydrochloride (MH) were prepared to reduce iron overload for the improvement of the postoperative functional recovery after ICH aspiration surgery. Hemoglobin-induced iron accumulation in rat primary neuronal culture was delayed by the adsorptive capacity of blank KG, while MH-loaded KG displayed a stronger and more thorough cytoprotective effect than blank KG due to the combined effect of absorptive action to iron and sustained release of the iron chelator. Moreover, high iron-chelating efficiency in the hematoma region supplied by MH-loaded KG significantly reduced dose strength of iron chelator. In situ injection of KG with different MH loadings (2, 20, and 200 μg) into the hematoma region after aspiration surgery showed a stronger effect on the reduction of ICH-induced iron accumulation, edema, and neurological deficits in rats compared to the postoperative intraperitoneal administration of MH (approximately 15 mg). These results suggested that the in situ KG not only could effectively reduce the ICH postoperative iron overload and improve the postoperative functional recovery via the iron adsorption and sustained release of MH, but also has great potential to reduce the systemic adverse effects by decreasing the dose strength of iron chelator.