Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders that are characterized by intestinal epithelial inflammation and injury. Currently, the most employed therapies are antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs; however, the side effects limit long-term effectiveness. We evaluated the impact of glucose-lysine Maillard reaction products (Glc-Lys MRPs) on colitis, induced in rats by an administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water. Glc-Lys MRPs ameliorate DSS-induced colitis, as determined by a decrease in disease index activity, colon weight/length ratio, nitric oxide levels in serum, recovery of body weight loss, colon length and serum lysozyme levels. Furthermore, Glc-Lys MRPs increase the glutathione content and the activity of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and inhibit lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity in colon tissues. In particular, Glc-Lys MRPs suppress the mRNA level of the inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-κB in colon tissues. This study suggests the potential of Glc-Lys MRPs in preventing or treating IBDs.