Cognitive outcomes among Latino survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoma: A cross-sectional cohort study using culturally competent, performance-based assessment
This study sought to characterize cognitive outcomes among Latino survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL).Procedure:
In this cross-sectional cohort study, Latino survivors of ALL (n = 57) and LL (n = 5) aged 6–16 years were pooled and evaluated using validated measures of cognitive, academic, and behavioral function and English language proficiency. Performance was compared with norms using single-sample t-tests.Results:
In this cohort (n = 62, 50% male), mean ages at diagnosis and testing were 4.5 and 10.8 years, respectively; mean time off treatment was 44.7 months. All participants spoke English and over half (57%) identified Spanish as the primary language in the home. Forty-two families (68%) placed in the two lowest Hollingshead socioeconomic status categories. Participants were below average for working memory (P < 0.001). Overall, participants were in the average range, but significantly lower than published norms on domain-specific measures of verbal comprehension (P < 0.001); perceptual reasoning (P = 0.033); processing speed (P = 0.003); visual memory (P < 0.001); visuomotor attention, scanning, and sequencing (P = 0.005); and reading comprehension (P = 0.001). Parents reported concerns with working memory (P < 0.001) and metacognition (P = 0.014).Conclusions:
Similar to other childhood ALL/LL survivors, overall cognitive function in this Latino sample was relatively preserved but selected deficits were observed. Routine cognitive screening is indicated in this population.