S-Allyl cysteine alleviates inflammation by modulating the expression of NF-κB during chromium (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is a common environmental pollutant. Cr (VI) exposure can lead to severe damage to the liver, but the preventive measures to diminish Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity need further study. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is a constituent of garlic (Allium sativum) and has many beneficial effects to humans and rodents. In this study, we intended to analyze the mechanistic role of SAC during Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity. Male Wistar albino rats were induced with 17 mg/kg body weight to damage the liver. The Cr (VI)-induced rats were treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of SAC as an optimum dosage to treat hepatotoxicity. We observed that the levels of oxidants, lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical (OH•) were increased, and enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were found to be decreased in Cr (VI)-induced rats. While treated with SAC, the levels of oxidants were decreased and enzymatic antioxidants were significantly (p < 0.05) increased. Lysosomal enzyme activities were increased in Cr (VI)-induced rats and on treatment with SAC, the activities were significantly decreased. The expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (p65-NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were increased during induction with Cr (VI). Subsequent administration of SAC to animals showed a decrease in the expressions of NF-κB, TNF-α, and iNOS. Results obtained from this study clearly demonstrated that SAC protects the liver cells from the Cr (VI)-induced free radical damage.