Higher Operating Table for Optimal Needle-Entry Angle and Less Discomfort During Spinal Anesthesia
The aim of this study was to find the optimal table height to facilitate insertion of the spinal needle at a 90° angle and to reduce the anesthesiologist’s discomfort. Sixty patients were randomly allocated according to landmarks on the anesthesiologist’s body: umbilicus (group U), lowest rib margin (R), xiphoid process (X), and nipple (N). The coronal insertion angle between the patient’s skin and the spinal needle was obtuse in groups U and R, and 90° in group X. We demonstrated that high operating tables at the xiphoid and nipple level facilitate more optimal needle entry angles while reducing the discomfort and joint flexion of anesthesiologists during spinal anesthesia.