Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mycophenolic acid using the prospective data in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA), is used to suppress GvHD in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). The purpose of this study was to construct a population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model in HCT patients for individualized MPA therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 49 HCT patients after starting MMF therapy. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were obtained using the program NONMEM. MPA was described via a one-compartment model with a first-order elimination, and 30.9% of MPA glucuronide (MPAG) was found in the enterohepatic circulation. Inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity was modeled as a maximal inhibitory model with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.59 μg/mL against MPA concentrations. Simulations based on the obtained pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters revealed that decreased creatinine clearance increases the MPAG concentration followed by an increased MPA concentration; therefore, IMPDH activity decreases. Diarrhea decreases the enterohepatic circulation of MPAG and consequently reduces MPA concentration. The IC50 for MPA exhibited a positive association with C-reactive protein. Dosage adjustment based on plasma MPA concentration is required especially for patients with renal dysfunction and/or diarrhea.