Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in kidney transplant recipients: A series of seven cases.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Superficial and deep fungal infections are more frequent in transplant recipients primarily because of the failure of cell-mediated immunity and lesser amount of antigen-presenting Langerhans cells in their epidermis. Here, we report seven cases of post-renal transplant subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, all of which manifested within 1 year after transplantation and were unresponsive to prolonged courses of itraconazole. This is the first case series, to our knowledge, of phaeohyphomycosis in transplant recipients in India.

METHOD

We performed a retrospective review of cases of phaeohyphomycosis among kidney transplant recipients for type of transplant, immunosuppression, histopathology, and treatment, with prospective follow-up of healed lesion.

RESULTS

An overall incidence of 8.3% was noted, with a median duration of approximately 6 months post transplant to the onset of skin lesion. None of the lesions responded to itraconazole alone and 6/7 lesions were surgically excised. Histopathology showed various lesions and culture could isolate Neocytalidium and Exophiala jeanselmi in two cases.

CONCLUSION

Dematiaceous fungi are increasingly implicated in cutaneous lesions in transplant recipients. Histopathology and surgical excision are the appropriate tools for diagnosis and treatment, respectively.

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