Metabolic Complications of Home Parenteral Nutrition
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) has benefited countless patients since its initiation almost 5 decades ago. Over time, HPN has been found to be associated with various complications, including metabolic disorders. Metabolic complications can be grouped into short-term (eg, fluid imbalance, electrolyte disturbances, glucose abnormalities) and long-term (eg, hepatobiliary disorders, metabolic bone disease, iron deficiency anemia, manganese toxicity) categories. There are a number of treatment options for each complication. It is important to evaluate the entire clinical picture prior to initiating an intervention and use evidence-based interventions when available. A dedicated multidisciplinary team is best suited to prevent and manage complications when they are identified.