Inflammation in bone physiology and pathology

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Bone is constantly being remodeled throughout adult life through constant anabolic and catabolic actions that maintain tissue homeostasis. A number of hormones, cytokines growth factors, and the proximity of various cells to bone surfaces influence this process. Inflammatory changes at the bone microenvironment result in alterations leading to both excessive bone loss and bone formation. Detailed understanding of the physiological and pathological mechanisms that dictate these changes will allow us to harness inflammatory signals in bone regeneration.

Recent findings

Recent reports have suggested that inflammatory signals are able to stimulate transcription factors that regulate osteoblast differentiation from their precursors.

Summary

In this review, we summarized current understanding of the roles of inflammation in bone resorption and bone formation, which give rise to different disorders and discuss the huge potential of harnessing these inflammatory signals to achieve bone regeneration.

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