Comparative Effectiveness of Uterine Leiomyoma Procedures Using a Large Insurance Claims Database
To compare risk of reintervention, long-term clinical outcomes, and health care utilization among women who have bulk symptoms from leiomyoma and who underwent the following procedures: hysterectomy, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, and magnetic resonance-guided, focused ultrasound surgery.METHODS:
This was a retrospective analysis of administrative claims from a large U.S. commercial insurance database. Women aged 18–54 years undergoing any of the previously mentioned leiomyoma procedures between 2000 and 2013 were included. We assessed the following outcome measures: risk of reintervention between uterine-sparing procedures, risk of other surgical procedures or complications of the index procedure, 5-year health care utilization, pregnancy rates, and reproductive outcomes. Propensity score matching along with Cox proportional hazard models were used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between study cohorts.RESULTS:
Among the 135,522 study-eligible women with mean follow-up of 3.4 years, hysterectomy was the most common first-line procedural therapy (111,324 [82.2%]) followed by myomectomy (19,965 [14.7%]), uterine artery embolization (4,186 [3.1%]) and magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (47 [0.0003%]). Small but statistically significant differences were noted for uterine artery embolization and myomectomy in reintervention rate (17.1% compared with 15.0%, P=.02), subsequent hysterectomy rates (13.2% compared with 11.1%, P<.01) and subsequent complications from index procedures (18.1% compared with 24.6%, P<.001). During follow-up, women undergoing myomectomy had lower leiomyoma-related health care utilization, but had higher all-cause outpatient services. Pregnancy rates were 7.5% and 2.2% among myomectomy and uterine artery embolization cohorts, respectively (P<.001) with both cohorts having similar rates of adverse reproductive outcome (69.4%).CONCLUSIONS:
Although the overwhelming majority of women having leiomyoma with bulk symptoms underwent hysterectomy as their first treatment procedure, among those undergoing uterine-sparing index procedures, approximately one seventh had a reintervention, and one tenth ended up undergoing hysterectomy during follow-up. Compared with women undergoing myomectomy, women undergoing uterine artery embolization had a higher risk of reintervention, lower risk of subsequent complications, but similar rate of adverse reproductive outcomes.