Comparative Effectiveness of Uterine Leiomyoma Procedures Using a Large Insurance Claims Database

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To compare risk of reintervention, long-term clinical outcomes, and health care utilization among women who have bulk symptoms from leiomyoma and who underwent the following procedures: hysterectomy, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, and magnetic resonance-guided, focused ultrasound surgery.

METHODS:

This was a retrospective analysis of administrative claims from a large U.S. commercial insurance database. Women aged 18–54 years undergoing any of the previously mentioned leiomyoma procedures between 2000 and 2013 were included. We assessed the following outcome measures: risk of reintervention between uterine-sparing procedures, risk of other surgical procedures or complications of the index procedure, 5-year health care utilization, pregnancy rates, and reproductive outcomes. Propensity score matching along with Cox proportional hazard models were used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between study cohorts.

RESULTS:

Among the 135,522 study-eligible women with mean follow-up of 3.4 years, hysterectomy was the most common first-line procedural therapy (111,324 [82.2%]) followed by myomectomy (19,965 [14.7%]), uterine artery embolization (4,186 [3.1%]) and magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (47 [0.0003%]). Small but statistically significant differences were noted for uterine artery embolization and myomectomy in reintervention rate (17.1% compared with 15.0%, P=.02), subsequent hysterectomy rates (13.2% compared with 11.1%, P<.01) and subsequent complications from index procedures (18.1% compared with 24.6%, P<.001). During follow-up, women undergoing myomectomy had lower leiomyoma-related health care utilization, but had higher all-cause outpatient services. Pregnancy rates were 7.5% and 2.2% among myomectomy and uterine artery embolization cohorts, respectively (P<.001) with both cohorts having similar rates of adverse reproductive outcome (69.4%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Although the overwhelming majority of women having leiomyoma with bulk symptoms underwent hysterectomy as their first treatment procedure, among those undergoing uterine-sparing index procedures, approximately one seventh had a reintervention, and one tenth ended up undergoing hysterectomy during follow-up. Compared with women undergoing myomectomy, women undergoing uterine artery embolization had a higher risk of reintervention, lower risk of subsequent complications, but similar rate of adverse reproductive outcomes.

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