The prognostic impact of single extra-stimulus on programmed ventricular stimulation in Brugada patients without previous cardiac arrest: multi-centre study in Japan
The prognostic value of programmed electrical stimulation (PES) in Brugada syndrome (BrS) remains controversial. One of the reasons for discrepant results may be due to the selection of stimulation protocol. We evaluated the prognostic value of a positive PES result (PES+) according to the inducible pacing sites and the number of extra-stimuli in BrS patients without previous cardiac arrest (CA).Methods and results
We enrolled 224 consecutive BrS patients without previous CA (mean age 51 ± 14 years, 209 males), who underwent PES with the identical protocol. Clinical outcomes of development of CA were explored in the patients with and without PES+ according to sites and number of extra-stimuli. During a mean follow-up period of 76 months, 12 cardiac events (CE: sudden cardiac death or documented VF) occurred (8 with and 4 without PES+). The incidence of CE was not different in patients with and without PES+, those with PES+ from RVA (n = 72) or RVOT (n = 60), and those with and without PES+ by up to 2 extra-stimuli (n = 58). However, in patients that were PES+ by a single extra-stimulus (n = 8) the incidence of CE was significantly higher than in those without PES+ (8.8 vs. 0.6%/year, P < 0.0001). On univariate analysis, syncope, spontaneous type 1 ECG, and PES+ by a single extra-stimulus were associated with CE.Conclusion
Details of the stimulation protocol may be important for risk assessment in BrS patients without previous CA. A single extra-stimulus may be useful in stratifying risk in patients with spontaneous type 1 ECG and syncope.