De novo hepatocellular carcinoma post-multivisceral transplantation in a child

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De novo hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) post-transplantation in patients without viral hepatitis is extremely rare, with only three reported adult cases in the English literature. Here, we present a case of de novo HCC that developed in a 7-year-old female, who at 8 months of age received a liver, small bowel, spleen, and pancreas transplantation 6.5 years ago for gastroschisis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-related cirrhosis. The post-transplant course was complicated by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease, and subsequent development of multifocal EBV-associated post-transplant smooth muscle tumors (EBV-PTSMT) in the small bowel 1 year and 10 months after transplantation, respectively. This was managed by reducing immunosuppression with rituximab and EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell therapy. She was noted to have a new lesion in her transplanted liver graft 6.5 years post-transplantation that was diagnosed as HCC. The HCC was resected, and the patient remained clinically stable for 7 months. At that time, recurrence of the HCC was discovered on MRI. She passed away 6 months after. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported occurrence of de novo HCC post-transplantation in the pediatric population that is unrelated to viral hepatitis in either recipient or donor.

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