Acute kidney injury in congenital heart disease

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Purpose of review

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery or in pediatric patients with congestive heart failure.

Recent findings

This review describes the definition and various manifestations of AKI, the impact of biomarkers on the diagnosis of AKI, the importance of fluid overload as a consequence of AKI and its long-term impact.


There are novel biomarkers for AKI detection that should facilitate early recognition and intervention to prevent or attenuate the effects of AKI and fluid overload. Previous conventional wisdom that survivors of AKI fully recover renal function without subsequent consequences is flawed.

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