AbstractPurpose of review
The article describes recent advances in understanding the causes and consequences of microbial translocation in HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus infections.Recent findings
Persistent microbial translocation contributes to aberrant immune activation in immunodeficiency lentiviral infections and thereby, pathogenesis and mortality. Efforts to delineate the circumstances surrounding translocation have benefited from use of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected nonhuman primates and highlight the overwhelming immunologic diversion caused by translocating microbes. The use of therapeutics aimed at reducing microbial translocation show promise and will benefit from continued research into the mechanisms that promote systemic microbial dissemination in treated and untreated infections.Summary
Insights into the source and identity of translocating microbes in lentiviral infections continue to enhance the development of adjunct therapeutics.