Cord Blood Bisphenol A Levels and Reproductive and Thyroid Hormone Levels of Neonates: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children’s Health
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used and BPA exposure is nearly ubiquitous in developed countries. While animal studies have indicated adverse health effects of prenatal BPA exposure including reproductive dysfunction and thyroid function disruption possibly in a sex-specific manner, findings from epidemiologic studies have not been enough to prove these adverse effects. Given very limited research on human, the aim of this study was to investigate associations between cord blood BPA levels and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels of neonates and whether associations differed by neonate sex.Methods:
The study population included 514 participants of the Hokkaido study recruited from 2002 to 2005 at one hospital in Sapporo, Japan. The BPA level in cord blood was determined by ID-LC/MS/MS, and the limit of quantification was 0.040 ng/ml. We measured nine types of reproductive hormone levels in cord blood, and thyroid hormone levels were obtained from neonate mass screening test data. There were 283 subjects, who had both BPA and hormone levels measurements, included for the final analyses.Results:
The geometric mean of cord blood BPA was 0.051 ng/ml. After adjustment, BPA level was negatively associated with prolactin (PRL) (β = −0.38). There was an interaction between infant sex and BPA levels on PRL; a weak negative association was found in boys (β = −0.12), whereas a weak positive association was found in girls (β = 0.14). BPA level showed weak positive association with testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone levels in boys. No association was found between BPA and thyroid hormone levels.Conclusions:
Our findings suggested that fetal BPA levels might be associated with changes in certain reproductive hormone levels of neonates in a sex-specific manner, though further investigations are necessary.