Eprosartan mesylate loaded bilosomes as potential nano-carriers against diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
The objective of the present study was to formulate eprosartan mesylate loaded nano-bilosomes and investigates its potential for controlling streptozotocin induced diabetes nephropathy in Wistar rats. The eprosartan mesylate loaded nano-bilosomes comprising of various ratios of soybean phosphatidylcholine/sodium deoxycholate were prepared by thin film hydration technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for vesicles size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency. Further the optimized formulation was characterized for vesicles morphology, and its efficacy for the management of diabetic nephropathy in Wistar rats. The optimized eprosartan mesylate loaded nano-bilosomes exhibited vesicles size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of 63.88 ± 3.46 nm, 0.172 ± 0.026, −30.40 ± 2.75 mV and 61.19 ± 0.88% respectively. In vivo activity demonstrated that the prepared eprosartan mesylate loaded nano-bilosomes formulation demonstrated a nephro-protecting outcome as shown by the substantial decrease in serum creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase, total albumin, and malondialdehyde. Additionally, an oral administration of eprosartan mesylate loaded nano-bilosomes decreases the raised expressions of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and transforming growth factor-β1 in Wistar rats. Further, histopathological examination established the nephro-protective effect of prepared formulation. In conclusion, the research work in the paper suggests that the prepared eprosartan mesylate loaded nano-bilosomes could serve as a practical oral formulation for diabetic nephropathy in future therapy and may offer potential benefits in cases with hypertension and renal disease.