Adenine‐induced chronic kidney disease in rats
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem, usually in adults, that is increasing in both developed and developing countries.1 The disease is insidious over many years, and may result in end‐stage kidney disease (ESKD) needing enhancement of kidney function by dialysis or transplantation, with poor patient outcomes.2 An important cause of the increased morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD is cardiovascular disease,1 but the links between CKD and cardiovascular disease are understudied. The determinants of progression of CKD, per se, and of CKD to ESKD, are poorly understood. Thus, rodent models of CKD are often used to investigate the causes and progression of the disease, the links with cardiovascular disease, and to test potential interventions.3 Choosing the appropriate model to address specific hypotheses is important. This review addresses the benefits and limitations of the use of rodent models of CKD, and discusses the adenine model of CKD in rats.