Donor-lymphocyte infusion following haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation with peripheral blood stem cell grafts and PTCy
Donor-lymphocyte infusion (DLI) for relapse following haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haploHCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has been described in recipients of bone marrow grafts, but not recipients of G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood (PB) grafts. We retrospectively identified patients who underwent DLI following PB-haploHCT with PTCy for relapse, or loss of chimerism (LOC). Twelve patients (57%) received DLI for hematologic relapse/persistent disease, seven (33%) for extramedullary relapse and two (10%) for LOC. Sixteen (76%) received chemotherapy prior to DLI, which did not correlate with response. The most common first dose was 1 × 106 CD3+ cells/kg. Two patients developed grade I aGvHD post DLI, one had grade II and two had grade III. One developed mild skin cGvHD 1361 days post DLI. Pre-DLI aGvHD predicted post-DLI aGvHD (P = 0.025). Six patients achieved CR after DLI for overt relapse, one achieved full donor chimerism after LOC. Patients with LOC or EM relapse had superior relapse-free survival following DLI (P = 0.029). DLI following PB-haploHCT with PTCy is a viable salvage therapy for overt relapse or LOC without a substantial increase in GvHD, and donor lymphocytes may be collected simultaneously with graft collection to facilitate availability in patients at high risk of relapse.