The Impact of Obesity on Mortality and Other Outcomes in Patients With Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in the United States

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To quantify in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (NVUGIH) the relationship between obesity and mortality, disease severity, treatment modalities, and resource utilization.


NVUGIH is the most common gastrointestinal emergency.


Adults with a principal diagnosis of NVUGIH were selected from the 2014 National Inpatient Sample. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were hemorrhagic shock, prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), upper endoscopy [esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)], radiologic treatment, surgery, length of hospital stay (LOS), and total hospitalization costs and charges. Confounders were adjusted for using multivariable regression analyses.


In total, 227,480 admissions with NVUGIH were included, 11.70% of whom were obese. Obese and nonobese patients had similar odds of mortality (aOR: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-1.12; P=0.30), EGD within 24 hours of admission (aOR: 0.95; CI: 0.89-1.01; P=0.10), radiologic treatment (aOR: 1.06; CI: 0.82-1.35; P=0.66), and surgery (aOR: 1.27; CI: 0.94-1.70; P=0.11). However, obese patients had higher odds of shock (aOR: 1.30; CI: 1.14-1.49; P<0.01), PMV (aOR: 1.39; CI: 1.18-1.62; P<0.01), undergoing an EGD (aOR: 1.27; CI: 1.16-1.40; P<0.01), needing endoscopic therapy (aOR: 1.18; CI: 1.09-1.27; P<0.01), a longer LOS (0.31 d; CI: 0.16-0.46 d; P<0.01), higher costs ($1075; CI: $636-$1514; P<0.01), and higher charges ($4084; CI: $2060-$6110; P<0.01) compared with nonobese patients.


Obesity is not an independent predictor of NVUGIH mortality. However, obesity is associated with a more severe disease course (shock and PMV), higher rates of EGD and endoscopic therapy use, and significant increases in resource utilization (hospital LOS, total hospitalization costs, and charges).

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