Spontaneous nano-emulsification: Process optimization and modeling for the prediction of the nanoemulsion’s size and polydispersity
The aim of the present study was to optimize the size and polydispersity of a lipid nanoemulsion as a function of the oil (Labrafac® WL1349), surfactant (Kolliphor® HS 15) and cosurfactant (Span® 80) phase composition and temperature. The nanoemulsions were prepared using a low-energy self-emulsification method. The Z-average diameter and the polydispersity index (PDI) were modeled with mixture experiments. Nanoemulsions from 20 nm to 120 nm with PDI < 0.2 were obtained at the three different tested temperatures (30 °C, 50 °C and 90 °C). The nanoemulsion size was able to be controlled with the oil, surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations. Interestingly, the smallest PDIs were obtained at 30 °C, and the cosurfactant concentration was able to be adjusted to optimize the formulation and to obtain nanoemulsions in the 20–120 nm range with a PDI smaller than 0.14. These nanoemulsions have shown a good stability at 4 °C in storage conditions and at 37 °C in diluted conditions.