Influence of Intramyocardial Adipose Tissue on the Accuracy of Endocardial Contact Mapping of the Chronic Myocardial Infarction Substrate
Recent studies have demonstrated that intramyocardial adipose tissue (IMAT) may contribute to ventricular electrophysiological remodeling in patients with chronic myocardial infarction. Using an ovine model of myocardial infarction, we aimed to determine the influence of IMAT on scar tissue identification during endocardial contact mapping and optimal voltage-based mapping criteria for defining IMAT dense regions.Method and Results:
In 7 sheep, left ventricular endocardial and transmural mapping was performed 84 weeks (15–111 weeks) post-myocardial infarction. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between endocardial contact electrogram amplitude and histological composition of myocardium. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to derive optimal electrogram thresholds for IMAT delineation during endocardial mapping and to describe the use of endocardial mapping for delineation of IMAT dense regions within scar. Endocardial electrogram amplitude correlated significantly with IMAT (unipolar r=−0.48±0.12, P<0.001; bipolar r=−0.45±0.22, P=0.04) but not collagen (unipolar r=−0.36±0.24, P=0.13; bipolar r=−0.43±0.31, P=0.16). IMAT dense regions of myocardium reliably identified using endocardial mapping with thresholds of <3.7 and <0.6 mV, respectively, for unipolar, bipolar, and combined modalities (single modality area under the curve=0.80, P<0.001; combined modality area under the curve=0.84, P<0.001). Unipolar mapping using optimal thresholding remained significantly reliable (area under the curve=0.76, P<0.001) during mapping of IMAT, confined to putative scar border zones (bipolar amplitude, 0.5–1.5 mV).Conclusions:
These novel findings enhance our understanding of the confounding influence of IMAT on endocardial scar mapping. Combined bipolar and unipolar voltage mapping using optimal thresholds may be useful for delineating IMAT dense regions of myocardium, in postinfarct cardiomyopathy.