Precision Medicine for Cardiac Resynchronization: Predicting Quality of Life Benefits for Individual Patients—An Analysis From 5 Clinical Trials

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Clinical trials have established the average benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), but estimating benefit for individual patients remains difficult because of the heterogeneity in treatment response. Accordingly, we created a multivariable model to predict changes in quality of life (QoL) with and without CRT.

Methods and Results:

Patient-level data from 5 randomized trials comparing CRT with no CRT were used to create a prediction model of change in QoL at 3 months using a partial proportional odds model for no change, small, moderate, and large improvement, or deterioration of any magnitude. The C statistics for not worsening or obtaining at least a small, moderate, and large improvement were calculated. Among the 3614 patients, regardless of assigned treatment, 33.3% had a deterioration in QoL, 9.2% had no change, 9.2% had a small improvement, 13.5% had a moderate improvement, and the remaining 34.9% had a large improvement. Patients undergoing CRT were less likely to have a decrement in their QoL (28.2% versus 38.9%; P<0.001) and more likely to have a large QoL improvement (38.7% versus 30.6%; P<0.001). A partial proportional odds model identified baseline QoL, age, and an interaction of CRT with QRS duration as predictors of QoL benefits 3 months after randomization. C statistics of 0.65 for not worsening, 0.68 for at least a small improvement, 0.69 for at least a moderate improvement, and 0.73 for predicting a large improvement were observed.


There is marked heterogeneity of treatment benefit of CRT that can be predicted based on baseline QoL, age, and QRS duration.

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