The purpose of our retrospective study was to evaluate the results of orthognathic treatment, distraction osteogenesis, and/or prosthetic reconstruction of the temporomandibular joints in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
Twelve patients with severely affected temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and reduced ramus height were treated with mandibular advancement with orthognathic surgery (11) and additional bilateral or unilateral mandibular ramus distraction (3) or additional bilateral or unilateral prosthetic reconstruction of the TMJ (3). One patient was treated surgically with bilateral TMJ prosthetic reconstruction only. The patients were followed up clinically and radiologically with emphasis on healing, TMJ function, stability of the occlusion, skeletal stability, and facial appearance for an average of 2.3 years after the final surgery. The mean mandibular advancement was 10.1 mm. The mean relapse at pogonion was 2.1 mm, which represents 20.8% of the surgical advancement. The occlusion was stable in 11/12 patients. The TMJ function was good and the facial esthetics improved in all patients. Orthognathic treatment and mandibular ramus distraction osteogenesis provide beneficial lengthening of the mandibular body in JIA patients with asymptomatic and stabile condyles. In adult patients with relapse of the disease or postoperative condylar relapse prosthetic total joint replacement is a reliable and safe alternative.