Country of Birth of Children With Diagnosed HIV Infection in the United States, 2008–2014
Diagnoses of HIV infection among children in the United States have been declining; however, a notable percentage of diagnoses are among those born outside the United States. The impact of foreign birth among children with diagnosed infections has not been examined in the United States.Methods:
Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National HIV Surveillance System, we analyzed data for children aged <13 years with diagnosed HIV infection (“children”) in the United States (reported from 50 states and the District of Columbia) during 2008–2014, by place of birth and selected characteristics.Results:
There were 1516 children [726 US born (47.9%) and 676 foreign born (44.6%)]. US-born children accounted for 70.0% in 2008, declining to 32.3% in 2013, and 40.9% in 2014. Foreign-born children have exceeded US-born children in number since 2011. Age at diagnosis was younger for US-born than foreign-born children (0–18 months: 72.6% vs. 9.8%; 5–12 years: 16.9% vs. 60.3%). HIV diagnoses in mothers of US-born children were made more often before pregnancy (49.7% vs. 21.4%), or during pregnancy (16.6% vs. 13.9%), and less often after birth (23.7% vs. 41%). Custodians of US-born children were more often biological parents (71.9% vs. 43.2%) and less likely to be foster or nonrelated adoptive parents (10.4% vs. 55.1%). Of 676 foreign-born children with known place of birth, 65.5% were born in sub-Saharan Africa and 14.3% in Eastern Europe. The top countries of birth were Ethiopia, Ukraine, Uganda, Haiti, and Russia.Conclusions:
The increasing number of foreign-born children with diagnosed HIV infection in the United States requires specific considerations for care and treatment.