Country of Birth of Children With Diagnosed HIV Infection in the United States, 2008–2014

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Abstract

Background:

Diagnoses of HIV infection among children in the United States have been declining; however, a notable percentage of diagnoses are among those born outside the United States. The impact of foreign birth among children with diagnosed infections has not been examined in the United States.

Methods:

Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National HIV Surveillance System, we analyzed data for children aged <13 years with diagnosed HIV infection (“children”) in the United States (reported from 50 states and the District of Columbia) during 2008–2014, by place of birth and selected characteristics.

Results:

There were 1516 children [726 US born (47.9%) and 676 foreign born (44.6%)]. US-born children accounted for 70.0% in 2008, declining to 32.3% in 2013, and 40.9% in 2014. Foreign-born children have exceeded US-born children in number since 2011. Age at diagnosis was younger for US-born than foreign-born children (0–18 months: 72.6% vs. 9.8%; 5–12 years: 16.9% vs. 60.3%). HIV diagnoses in mothers of US-born children were made more often before pregnancy (49.7% vs. 21.4%), or during pregnancy (16.6% vs. 13.9%), and less often after birth (23.7% vs. 41%). Custodians of US-born children were more often biological parents (71.9% vs. 43.2%) and less likely to be foster or nonrelated adoptive parents (10.4% vs. 55.1%). Of 676 foreign-born children with known place of birth, 65.5% were born in sub-Saharan Africa and 14.3% in Eastern Europe. The top countries of birth were Ethiopia, Ukraine, Uganda, Haiti, and Russia.

Conclusions:

The increasing number of foreign-born children with diagnosed HIV infection in the United States requires specific considerations for care and treatment.

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