Macrophage polarization and function: new prospects for fibrotic disease
Fibrosis is commonly regarded as a pathological and dynamic process with the hallmarks of chronic inflammation and wound healing. Emerging evidence indicates that heterogeneous monocyte-macrophage lineage cells are indispensable for mounting either pro-fibrotic or anti-fibrotic responses in different stages during fibrotic pathogenesis. This review highlights the evolving roles of macrophage polarization and functions linked to fibrosis in multiple organs. In the future, identifying the molecular and cellular factors that influence the macrophage phenotypic balance may provide novel therapeutic approaches for fibrotic diseases.