Early Behavioral Risks of Childhood and Adolescent Daytime Urinary Incontinence and Nocturnal Enuresis
To investigate whether infant temperament and childhood internalizing, externalizing, and inattention symptoms increase the likelihood of daytime urinary incontinence or nocturnal enuresis at 10 years and adolescence (11.9–17.8 years).Method:
Data were from a longitudinal cohort of 1119 healthy Chilean children. We assessed behavioral symptoms at infancy, 5 years, and 10 years and their relationship with subsequent daytime urinary incontinence and nocturnal enuresis.Results:
Daytime urinary incontinence and nocturnal enuresis occurred in, respectively, 3.3% and 11.4% at 10 years and 1.1% and 2.7% at adolescence. Difficult infant temperament was associated with increased odds of 10-year daytime urinary incontinence. Inattention at 5 years was associated with increased odds for nocturnal enuresis at 10 years and adolescence. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms at 5 years were associated with increased odds of 10-year daytime urinary incontinence and nocturnal enuresis. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms at 10 years were associated with adolescent nocturnal enuresis.Conclusion:
Temperament and internal/externalizing symptoms may be risk factors for school-age and adolescent urinary incontinence.