In spinal fusion surgery, total blood loss (TBL) is composed of visible blood loss from the surgical field and wound drainage, and hidden blood loss (HBL). Until now, no published studies exist reporting the effect of topical use of tranexamic acid (tTXA) on HBL in patients undergoing posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery. This study aimed to explore the effect of tTXA on HBL during primary posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Between September 2014 and September 2016, 100 adult patients (age > 18 years) with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis undergoing primary posterior lumbar instrumented spinal fusions at 1 institution were divided into tTXA and control groups. The primary outcome was HBL. Secondary outcomes include TBL, intraoperative blood loss (IBL), postoperative blood loss (PBL), hemoglobin (HGB) levels on preoperative (Pre-op) and postoperatively (days 1–3, POD1, POD2, POD3, respectively), and amount of allogeneic blood transfusion. Complications occurring perioperatively until hospitalization discharge were also collected. In the tTXA group (n = 50 patients), wound surface was soaked with TXA (1 g in 100 mL saline solution) for 5 minutes before wound closure. For the control group (n = 50 patients), wound surface was soaked with the same volume of normal saline. There were no significant differences in demographics, surgical traits between the 2 groups. There were no significant differences in IBL or perioperative blood transfusion requirements between the 2 groups. However, in the tTXA group, TBL, PBL, and HBL were significantly lower than those in the control group (550 ± 268 vs 833 ± 298 mL, 53.5 ± 43.9 vs 136.7 ± 87.9 mL, 356.7 ± 254.8 vs 501.1 ± 216.9 mL, P < .001, respectively). HGB levels were significantly higher in the tTXA group (P < .001) on POD1 and had a slower decline on POD2 and POD3 than the control group. No complications associated with TXA were observed. From these data, we conclude that tTXA can effectively reduce HBL, without significant complications in adult patients undergoing posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery.