Lower blood pressure and smaller pulse pressure in sleeping pill users: A large-scale cross-sectional analysis

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the association between sleeping pill use and hypertension or blood pressure (BP) via a cross-sectional analysis.

A total of 11,225 subjects (5875 men and 5350 women) underwent health examinations. We compared the proportion of sleeping pill users among hypertension (n = 5099) and normotensive (n = 6126) participants. We analyzed participants with no intake of antihypertensive medication (n = 7788), comparing the proportions with high systolic BP (SBP) ≥140, high diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90, and high pulse pressure (PP) ≥50 mm Hg across 3 subgroups. These groups were classified according to the sleeping pill use [nonuse group (n = 6869); low-frequency-use group, defined as taking sleeping pills ≤2 days per week (n = 344); and high-frequency-use group, defined as taking sleeping pills ≥3 days per week (n = 575)].

In the multivariable-adjusted model, odds of sleeping pill use (odds ratio (OR), 1.14; P < .05) was significantly higher in the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group. In participants with no intake of antihypertensive medication, odds of high SBP (OR, 0.65; P < .0005), high DBP (OR, 0.58; P < .005), and high PP (OR, 0.77; P < .01) were significantly lower in the high-frequency-use group compared with the nonuse group. Odds of high DBP (OR, 0.59; P < .05) was significantly lower in the low-frequency-use group.

Sleeping pills were more frequently required in hypertensive participants than in the normotensive ones. Sleeping pill use may decrease BP and assist in the treatment of high BP in patients with sleep disturbances.

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