The mechanics of dental occlusion and disclusion

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Background:The mechanical environment associated with occluding teeth is the foundation for a wide range of research topics, clinical practice and dogma, product development and marketing, and medico-legal issues. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine the relationships between occlusal factors and their impact on the associated contact forces.Methods:Matching pairs of 0°, 20°, 33° and 40° cusp first molar denture teeth were placed into Class I, II and III molar relationships. As the teeth were brought together into occlusion and then separated, the loads experienced by the mandibular tooth were continuously measured by a load cell that was supporting it.Findings:Loess smoothing splines were fitted to all data curves to calculate 95% confidence intervals. All lateral force magnitudes and directions were statistically different when compared between classes of occlusion, cusp angles, and occlusion vs. disclusion. Noteworthy counterintuitive observations were that the lateral contact force components were generally higher during disclusion than occlusion, the peak lateral force magnitudes did not always occur when the occlusal force was maximum, and the lateral contact force component magnitude can be larger than the occlusal force.Interpretation:Wedging and friction account for these unexpected results. The data indicate that each occlusion/disclusion cycle is characterized by complex transient loads that may impact wear facet and non-carious cervical lesion formation, implant and restorative failures, various aspects of occlusal trauma, and the concept of axial occlusal loading.HighlightsOcclusal contact forces are transient, complex and unpredictable.Occlusal forces are far more complex than the unidirectional force assumptions.Lateral occlusal forces are generally higher during disclusion than occlusion.Peak lateral forces do not always occur when the occlusal force is maximum.The lateral force can be larger than the occlusal force.

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