Blood Hematological and Biochemical Constituents, Antioxidant Enzymes, Immunity and Lymphoid Organs of Broiler Chicks Supplemented with Propolis, Bee Pollen and Mannan Oligosaccharides Continuously or Intermittently
This study investigate the effect of bee pollen (BP) and/or propolis (Pro) as an alternative to Mannan oligosaccharides (Bio-MOS, a hydrolyzed yeast with natural and artificial flavors Alltech Inc) when given continuously or intermittently on antioxidant enzymes, immunity, weight and morphology of lymphoid organs of broilers. Thus, 324 unsexed one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into nine treatment groups, each replicated 6 times of 6 birds per replicate. The chicks were kept in wire cages and fed the same basal diet and were submitted to the following treatments: control without supplementation (control) or supplemented with BP at 300 mg, Pro at 300 mg, BP+Pro at 300 mg each and Bio-MOS at 0.5 g/kg diet. Each supplemented group was subdivided into two subgroups in which the additives were supplied continuously or intermittently. In the continuously supplemented groups, supplementations were given from one till 36 days of age, and in the intermittently supplemented groups, the administration was only three days before, on the day of and day after vaccination. The BP and Pro supplied continuously or intermittently was equally potent for improving immunity, antioxidant enzymes similar to Bio-MOS. All supplements supplied either continuously or intermittently resulted a significantly higher thymus (P < .04) and bursa weights (P < .001) than the control group. Combining BP with Pro resulted in a further increase in thymus weights and small follicle diameter compared to the control group. In addition, thymus percentage in the group received BP+Pro showed a further increase compared to the control and Pro supplemented intermittently. Bio-MOS, when supplied continuously or intermittently, resulted in the greatest response in splenic lymphoblasts. Supplementation with either BP or Pro intermittently, is adequate to promote health and immune response of broiler chicks, with 40% saving of supplementation costs.