Poly (I:C) and imiquimod induced immune responses and their effects on the survival of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


The stimulation of immune genes by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)) and imiquimod in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and their role in control of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) infection were examined. Poly (I:C) (100 μg/fish) treated olive flounder had very low mortality (5%) post VHSV infection, while the imiquimod treated group had 65% and 85% mortality at a dose of 100 μg/fish and 50 μg/fish, respectively. Though the imiquimod treated group had high mortality, it was lower than the untreated group, which had 90% mortality. In vivo experiments were conducted to determine effect of the two ligands on immune modulation in the head kidney of olive flounder. Poly (I:C) activated the immune genes (TLR-3, TLR-7, MDA-5, LGP-2, IRF-3, IRF-7, IL-1β type I IFN and Mx) very early, within 1 d post stimulation, faster and stronger than imiquimod. Though Mx levels were enhanced by imiquimod, the host was still susceptible to VHSV. The poly (I:C) treated group had a high immune response at the time of infection and 1 dpi, though it decreased at later stages. The imiquimod treated group and the unstimulated group had a higher immune response to VHSV compared to the poly (I:C) treated group. The nucleoprotein copies of VHSV were very low in the poly (I:C) treated group but interestingly, were high in both untreated and imiquimod treated fish. Thus, host survival from a viral infection does not only depend on the quantity of immune response but also the time of response. Although imiquimod enhanced immune gene expression in olive flounder, a delayed response could be the reason for high mortality to VHS compared with poly (I:C), which induced the immune system effectively and efficiently to protect the host.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles