The macular area is important to the detection of glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage. Macular thickness complementary to peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness can well reflect glaucomatous damage, given that the macula contains more than 50% of the RGCs in a multilayered pattern and larger RGC bodies compared with their axons. Thus, macular ganglion cell thickness parameters recently have been considered to be an effective glaucoma-diagnostic tool comparable to RNFL thickness parameters. Furthermore, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer thickness and deviation maps can provide additional information essential for distinguishing glaucomatous changes from other, myopia-associated or macular disease-associated changes. Therefore, our aim with this study was to review the clinical application of macular imaging by optical coherence tomography and to provide essential clinical tips for its use in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma.