Performance of the Cox-maze IV procedure is associated with improved long-term survival in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing cardiac surgery

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Abstract

Objective

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased mortality risk. The Cox-maze IV procedure (CM4) performed concomitantly with other cardiac procedures has been shown to be effective for restoring sinus rhythm. However, few data have been published on the late survival of patients undergoing a concomitant CM4.

Methods

Patients undergoing cardiac surgery were retrospectively reviewed from 2001 to 2016 (n = 10,859). Patients were stratified into 3 groups: patients with a history of AF receiving a concomitant CM4 (CM4; n = 438), patients with a history of AF unaddressed during surgery (Untreated AF; n = 1510), and patients without AF history (No AF; n = 8911). Propensity score matching was conducted between the CM4 and Untreated AF groups, and between the CM4 and No AF groups.

Results

Thirty-day mortality was similar between the matched groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed greater survival for CM4 compared to Untreated AF (P = .004). Ten-year survival was 62% for CM4 and 42% for Untreated AF. Adjusted hazard ratio was 0.47 (95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.86, P = .014). No difference in survival was found between CM4 and No AF groups with the Kaplan–Meier analysis (P = .847). Ten-year survival was 63% for CM4 and 55% for No AF. Adjusted hazard ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.51-2.11, P = .929).

Conclusions

For selected patients with a history of AF undergoing cardiac surgery, concomitant CM4 did not add significantly to postoperative morbidity or mortality and was associated with improved late survival compared with patients with untreated AF and a similar survival to patients without a history of AF.

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