Clindamycin-modified Triple Antibiotic Nanofibers: A Stain-free Antimicrobial Intracanal Drug Delivery System
A biocompatible strategy to promote bacterial eradication within the root canal system after pulpal necrosis of immature permanent teeth is critical to the success of regenerative endodontic procedures. This study sought to synthesize clindamycin-modified triple antibiotic (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin [CLIN]) polymer (polydioxanone [PDS]) nanofibers and determine in vitro their antimicrobial properties, cell compatibility, and dentin discoloration.Methods:
CLIN-only and triple antibiotic CLIN-modified (CLIN-m, minocycline-free) nanofibers were processed via electrospinning. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and tensile testing were performed to investigate fiber morphology, antibiotic incorporation, and mechanical strength, respectively. Antimicrobial properties of CLIN-only and CLIN-m nanofibers were assessed against several bacterial species by direct nanofiber/bacteria contact and over time based on aliquot collection up to 21 days. Cytocompatibility was measured against human dental pulp stem cells. Dentin discoloration upon nanofiber exposure was qualitatively recorded over time. The data were statistically analyzed (P < .05).Results:
The mean fiber diameter of CLIN-containing nanofibers ranged between 352 ± 128 nm and 349 ± 128 nm and was significantly smaller than PDS fibers. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of antibiotics in the nanofibers. Hydrated CLIN-m nanofibers showed similar tensile strength to antibiotic-free (PDS) nanofibers. All CLIN-containing nanofibers and aliquots demonstrated pronounced antimicrobial activity against all bacteria. Antibiotic-containing aliquots led to a slight reduction in dental pulp stem cell viability but were not considered toxic. No visible dentin discoloration upon CLIN-containing nanofiber exposure was observed.Conclusions:
Collectively, based on the remarkable antimicrobial effects, cell-friendly, and stain-free properties, our data suggest that CLIN-m triple antibiotic nanofibers might be a viable alternative to minocycline-based antibiotic pastes.