Breast Reduction: Decreasing Complications and Improving Long-Term Aesthetic Results with Parenchymal Sutures

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



The inverted T/keyhole pattern is commonly used for large breast reductions. This technique relies on the breast skin to retain the shape. With the passage of time “fallout” (pseudoptosis) occurs impairing the cosmetic result. A technique is described that uses parenchymal sutures and inframammary fold (IMF) reinforcement sutures to maintain the intraoperative shape.


A retrospective study of 25 consecutive patients (50 breasts) where the IMF was reinforced and parenchymal sutures were inserted. The patients were followed up and the nipple to notch and nipple to IMF distance was measured and compared with that marked preoperatively and set intraoperatively. Complications, especially T junction breakdown, were also recorded.


The mean age was 38 years (range, 16–62 years) with a mean follow-up of 12 months. The mean body mass index was 31 (range, 22–41). The mean mass of tissue excised was 925 g (range, 340–1,800 g) per side. The distance from the suprasternal notch to the nipple remained unchanged. The distance from the nipple to the IMF remained the same as that marked preoperatively except in 3 patients who developed pseudoptosis. Only 3 patients had wound dehiscence.


Parenchymal and superficial fascial system sutures combined with IMF reinforcement contributes to maintaining the aesthetic result and decreasing complications, in weight stable patients.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles