De-novo versus recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma following direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus

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Abstract

Introduction

A recent appearance of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) led to a surge in hepatitis C virus (HCV) management. Nowadays, a large proportion of treated patients have cirrhosis with a retained possibility to develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) even after complete cure. We aimed to study tumoral differences between patients who developed HCC after DAAs as either a recurrence or de-novo HCC.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed 89 patients who presented to our HCC multidisciplinary clinic with HCC lesions following DAA therapy. A total of 45 patients had complete response to HCC according to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors before DAAs intake. Another 44 patients developed de-novo lesions after DAA treatment. Both groups were compared regarding their baseline characteristics, tumor criteria, response to DAAs as well response to HCC treatment.

Results

Both groups showed no significant difference regarding their baseline characteristics (age, sex, Child–Pugh score, and performance status) or response to DAAs (P=0.5). No significant difference was present between groups according to number, site, and size of lesions. However, time elapsed between the end of DAAs therapy and first diagnosis of HCC was significantly longer in de-novo group (15.22±16.39 months) versus recurrence group (6.76±5.1 months) (P=0.008). In addition, response to ablation was significantly better in de-novo lesions compared with recurrent HCC (P=0.03).

Conclusions

Although de-novo HCC lesions significantly developed later than recurrent lesions in DAAs-treated patients, their response rates were significantly better. No differences were detected between both groups in their response to DAAs and their tumoral characteristics.

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