To determine the age distribution of children with Coats disease and the impact of age at diagnosis on the visual prognosis.Methods:
Consecutive Coats disease cases aged 18 years or younger at diagnosis were retrospectively included. Clinical and imaging parameters were analyzed by comparative, correlation, survival, univariate, and multivariate statistics.Results:
Ninety-eight patients were included. At diagnosis, mean age was 5.4 years ± 4.3 years (1 month-18 years). Younger age at diagnosis was correlated with more severe disease stage (P < 0.0001, r = −0.52), which was confirmed by survival analysis (P < 0.0001). Comparative analysis was performed between patients younger and older than 4 years at diagnosis. Leukocoria or strabismus was more frequent at presentation in patients younger than 4 years (P < 0.0001). Areas of peripheral nonperfusion and peripheral telangiectasia were more extensive at presentation in younger than older patients (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.039). Foveal sparing at diagnosis was less frequent in younger than older patients (2% vs. 23%, P = 0.002). The incidence of structural complications or enucleation during follow-up (mean duration: 5.9 years ± 4.5 years) was higher, and last-recorded visual acuity was lower in younger than older patients (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0009). Final logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution visual acuity was negatively correlated with age at diagnosis (P = 0.001, Spearman r = −0.42). Multivariate analysis indicated that disease stage (P < 0.0001), but not age at diagnosis (P = 0.07), independently influenced the last-recorded visual acuity.Conclusion:
Onset of Coats disease in children of younger age is associated with more severe manifestations, more advanced stage, and worse visual outcome. Age, correlated with disease stage, should be considered a prognostic marker in Coats disease.